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Tag Archives: grid interconnectors

China – even more renewables

By Dave Elliott

China continues to be a global leader in renewables. The nation has more wind power (now at 169 GW) and solar PV (over 100 GW) than any other country and, on 2016 data, a world-beating 554GW of renewables in all, including hydro. There is more to come. The 13th Five Year Plan (2015-2020) proposed targets for energy efficiency, the reduction of carbon intensity and diversification away from fossil fuels, with non-fossil fuels providing 15% of primary energy consumption by 2020, up from 7.4% in 2005.  But China’s National Energy Administration (NEA) is also considering raising the 2020 solar target to 150 GW, which would lead to about 21 GW of annual installation between 2016 and 2020. The Five Year Plan also proposed to increase the installed capacity of wind to 250 GW by 2020.

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The last word on the cost of balancing renewables

By Dave Elliott

The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) has produced an update to its 2006 report that had looked at the costs and impacts of using ‘intermittent’ electricity from renewables such as wind and solar. The 2006 study had only examined impacts with up to a 20% input, but the UKERC researchers now say that, even at the higher levels we are now expecting, it was still the case that the costs of balancing renewables could be low. However, they warned that, unless ‘urgent’ action was taken by the government to boost grid flexibility, the costs of adding renewables in future will be ‘much higher than they need to be’.

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German energy balancing

By Dave Elliott

Germany is in the lead globally with its ambitious renewable energy programme, already supplying over 32% of its electricity and aiming for 80% by 2050.  At present, Germany’s 1.5 million photovoltaic solar installations have a generation capacity of over 40GW, four times the remaining 10.8 GW base-load nuclear fleet that is being decommissioned in stages between the end of 2017 and 2022. PV can be well matched to day-time peak demand in Germany, which is why it has challenged gas peaking plant in this market.  However, due to its low load factor (10-15%, compared to 70-80% or more for nuclear), solar PV generation only delivers around 940 equivalent full-load hours of electricity per year, so in 2015 its high capacity only met around 7.5% of German electricity demand, compared to 14% for nuclear generation. That’s why some think it is not the best option to expand for the future – it’s expensive for relatively low levels of actual output. (more…)

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EU e-Highway 2050

By Dave Elliott

A recent report says that long distance transmission grids offer many advantages including enhanced cross-EU trade and grid balancing opportunities, enabling high levels of renewables to be used while reducing curtailment of occasional surpluses. The European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity group had already addressed the development of the pan-EU electricity transmission network up to 2030 in a Ten-Year Network Development Plan. Starting with that, the e-Highway 2050 research and innovation project has now looked to 2050: it deals with the transition paths for the whole power system, with a focus on the transmission network, to support the European Union in reaching a low carbon economy by 2050.

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Supergrids can help Europe – and also Asia

by Dave Elliott

A ‘Supergrid’ network across the EU and also connecting Northern Africa with Europe could help both regions reach a near-100% renewable energy share, with grid and market integration reducing overall energy costs. That’s according to a report published by Fraunhofer ISE in Germany, which involved five separate Fraunhofer institutes and saw some development work on system control hardware carried out alongside the desk studies. Similar ideas are also emerging in Asia, with a pan-Asian grid being proposed.

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What sort of green grid system?

By Dave Elliott

It’s clear that we will need energy transmission grids and networks to help balance variable renewables and link up locations where there is excess to areas where there are temporary lulls, but what sort of energy is best for transmission? And for storage? Both are important and can interact: in some cases storage may be better as a local option than long distance transmission, while in other cases, long distance transmission may allow access to areas where storage (e.g. pumped hydro reservoirs) is easier.  However, electricity isn’t necessarily always the best option for either: for example, gas can be transmitted long distances with low losses and, once installed, gas pipelines are less invasive than power grid tower links. Gas can also be stored in bulk in underground caverns and the gas grid itself is a store. So as we move to a new energy system, we need to think about all the possible energy vectors – and that also includes heat.

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US gets to grips with renewables

By Dave Elliott

The US currently gets about 17% of its electricity from renewables, including hydro, and its potential for rapid expansion is huge. A new study from NOAA, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, says that a ‘US transition to a reliable, low-carbon, electrical generation and transmission system can be accomplished with commercially available technology and within 15 years’, according to Alexander MacDonald, one of the lead authors of the report, which was published in Nature Climate Change. But it would need supergrid  ‘electron superhighways’ to transmit electricity across the country.

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Grid Integration of Renewable Energy

By Dave Elliott

Eric Martinot has been one of the key people behind the indispensable annual REN21 Renewable Energy Network publications reviewing the state of play with renewables globally: see  The latest one says renewables now supply around 24% of global electricity. Martinot has also taken time out to look in detail at renewable integration issues, and this work has led to some excellent publications, including a useful non-technical overview ‘Grid Integration of Renewable Energy – Flexibility, Innovation, Experience’ for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources 2016 (February 2016). It focusses on the concept of flexibility, which it sees as vital for balancing variable renewables, including small continual changes, sudden large swings in availability, requiring rapid ramp-up of backup plants or other balancing measures, as well as for occasional longer periods of low input.

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China accelerates renewables

By Dave Elliott

The Chinese National Renewable Energy Centre (CNREC) says China could get 85% of its electricity and 60% of all its primary energy from renewables by 2050, with wind and solar PV both exceeding 2TW of installed capacity by 2040.

The nation certainly seems to be trying to head that way. Under its new 5 year plan it aims to more than double its wind energy capacity (to 250GW), and nearly treble solar capacity (to 160GW), accelerating well ahead of the EU.

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UK Energy and the EU: integration or isolation

By Dave Elliott

The UK may be island based but, as renewables expand, it will need more grid links to the continent for balancing and trade. It may have a net surplus and so could do very well selling it over supergrid interconnector links to EU countries less well endowed with renewables. The UK’s National Infrastructure Commission (NIC), which seems to be taking a leading role in energy system planning, said in its recent report ‘Smart Power’, that interconnection, along with storage and demand flexibility ‘could save consumers up to £8 billion a year by 2030, help the UK meet its 2050 carbon targets, and secure the UK’s energy supply for generations’.         

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